It's not too late to plant your garlic, you can still get your garlic in thru the end of November! Garlic is very easy to grow and requires little care or fuss. You plant it in the fall, start watering in the spring when it comes up, and harvest in the summer. Garlic is grown as clones, like potatoes, so they do not cross pollinate.
When you harvest, you save your biggest, best cloves to replant in the
fall. Each single planted clove grows around 8-10 cloves which a great
rate of return.
There are hard neck, and soft neck garlic - hard necks store longer, sometimes until you harvest your next crop, they grow a delicious spear in the early summer called a scape and they are stored with the stems trimmed short. Soft neck garlic stems can be braided for storage and do not store anywhere as long.
Grocery store garlic is soft neck, and the large cloves are usually Elephant Garlic which isn't a garlic at all, it's a Leek. The complexity and flavor of garlic will amaze you and it will probably be the easiest thing you grow.